The dose rate is found from the summation of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the sample and its surrounding environment.
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Electron Spin Resonance Dating, or ESR dating, is a technique used to date newly formed materials, which carbon dating cannot, like carbonates, tooth enamel, or materials that have been previously heated like igneous rock.
Electron spin resonance dating was first introduced to the science community in 1975, when Motoji Ikeya dated a speleothem in Akiyoshi Cave, Japan.
ESR dating measures the amount of unpaired electrons in crystalline structures that were previously exposed to natural radiation.
Since natural materials are not always perfect, sometimes electrons are trapped between energy levels.
The trapped electrons form para-magnetic centers and give rise to certain signals that can be detected under an ESR spectrometry.
The amount of trapped electrons corresponds to the magnitude of the ESR signal.
This ESR signal is directly proportional to the number of trapped electrons in the mineral, the dosage of radioactivity substances, and the age.
Age of substance can be determined by measuring the dosage of radiation since the time of its formation.
Electron spin resonance dating can be described as trapped charge dating.